In recent years, the landscape of early years education has undergone significant changes, with increased emphasis on providing quality learning experiences for young children. One debate which sparks controversy within this realm is the practice of early years settings charging additional fees, often referred to as top-up fees, for extra services beyond the funded hours. This editorial seeks to examine the ethical aspects of this practice and how it might impact parents and the early childhood education system.

The Early Years Funding Dilemma

At the heart of the debate lies the delicate balance between providing high-quality education and the financial sustainability of early years settings. Many establishments heavily depend on government funding to cover the basic costs of delivering early education, such as staffing, facilities, and essential resources. However, this funding often falls short of meeting the growing demands for additional services and resources that can enhance the overall learning experience for children.

With budgets stretched thin, some early years settings find themselves grappling with the dilemma of either compromising on the quality of education or seeking alternative revenue sources. The latter often comes in the form of charging ‘top-up fees’, sparking a contentious debate over the ethics of such practices.

Accessibility And Equality In Early Years

One of the primary concerns raised by critics is the impact of top-up fees on the accessibility and equality of early years education. The risk of creating a two-tier system, where only families with the financial means can afford additional services, raises questions about fairness and inclusivity. The essence of early education lies in providing a level playing field for all children, regardless of their socio-economic background.

The worry is that children from disadvantaged backgrounds may miss out on vital learning opportunities, exacerbating existing inequalities. Critics argue that access to high-quality early education should not be contingent on a family's ability to pay extra fees, as this undermines the very foundation of inclusive and accessible early years education.

Parents' Perspectives

On the other side of the spectrum, some parents argue that paying top-up fees is a small price to pay for enhanced services that contribute to their child's development. They view these extras as valuable additions, such as specialised classes, extended hours, or nutritious meals, that go beyond the standard offerings. This perspective acknowledges the financial strain on early years settings and suggests that these fees are necessary for providing an enriched educational experience.

Parents who support the idea of top-up fees contend that such charges contribute to a more holistic and tailored educational experience for their children. They argue that the additional resources and services made possible by these fees can create a more stimulating and supportive environment for early childhood development.

The Ethical Quandary

The ethical implications of charging top-up fees in early years settings are multifaceted and require careful consideration. On one hand, there's a need to ensure the financial viability of these institutions to maintain quality standards. Early years settings often face the challenge of balancing budgets while striving to provide enriching experiences that foster cognitive, social, and emotional development in children.

On the other hand, there's a moral obligation to uphold the principles of equal opportunity in education. Striking a balance between these two conflicting priorities poses a significant challenge for policymakers, educators, and parents alike. The ethical quandary lies in finding a compromise that ensures quality education for all children while acknowledging the financial realities faced by early years settings.

The Guidance

Many profitable settings charge for these extras and the official government guidance is clear regarding both this and additional funding revenues:

“Government funding is intended to deliver 15 or 30 hours a week of free, high-quality, flexible childcare. It is not intended to cover the costs of meals, other consumables, additional hours or additional services.

Local authorities should:

Ensure that providers are aware that they can charge for meals and snacks as part of a free entitlement place and that they can also charge for consumables, such as nappies or sun cream, and for services such as trips and specialist tuition. Local authorities should ensure that providers are mindful of the impact of additional charges on parents, especially the most disadvantaged. Providers, who choose to offer the free entitlements, are responsible for setting their own policy on providing parents with options for alternatives to additional charges, including allowing parents to supply their own meals or nappies or waiving or reducing the cost of meals and snacks.

Ensure that providers and parents are aware that the Early Years Pupil Premium (EYPP) provides additional funding to providers to support eligible children in early years settings and that the Disability Access Funding (DAF) supports eligible, disabled children’s access to the entitlements. Subject to Parliament passing the relevant regulations, eligibility for EYPP and for DAF will be extended to all children accessing the free entitlements from April 2024.”

Allan Presland, CEO of Parenta, shares his insights on a topic widely discussed among the hundreds of settings Parenta collaborates with and supports. “While the issue of charging for additional services is a subject of contention, nursery owners generally perceive the guidance as clear, and they understand the importance of transparency regarding extra charges for services like nappies, meals, sun cream, trips, and well-being activities (such as yoga) that may incur additional costs for the setting. However, a particular paragraph raises confusion:

"Ensure that providers deliver the free entitlements consistently, so that all children within a setting accessing any of the free entitlements receive the same quality and access to provision, regardless of whether they choose to pay for optional hours, services, meals, or consumables."

Many settings we work with express difficulties in achieving this consistency, especially for parents opting to pay for optional services. They find it challenging to provide the same level of service to children who have chosen different payment options, so it’s crucial to ensure all settings are well-informed about available funding, such as the Early Years Pupil Premium, to support disadvantaged children.

Potential Solutions For Early Years Settings

Addressing this controversy requires a collaborative effort between government bodies, early years settings, and parents. Policymakers must review funding models to ensure that the basic needs of early years settings are met without compromising accessibility. Establishing clear guidelines on what constitutes an ‘extra service’ and how these should be priced could help standardise the practice and minimise inequalities.

One potential solution is to redefine and expand the scope of government funding to cover a broader range of services that are deemed essential for the holistic development of children. This could include extended hours, extracurricular activities, and enhanced nutritional offerings. By revising funding models, policymakers can alleviate the financial burden on early years settings while ensuring that these institutions can provide a comprehensive and inclusive educational experience for all children.

Additionally, transparency in communication about top-up fees is crucial. Parents should be informed about the specific services covered by government funding and the optional extras that incur additional charges. This transparency enables parents to make informed decisions and fosters a sense of trust between parents and early years settings.


In the complex web of early years education, the question of charging top-up fees for extras is not easily answered. Striking a balance between financial sustainability and ensuring equal opportunities for all children is an ongoing challenge. As the discussion goes on, stakeholders should have open conversations, taking into account the lasting effects on education quality and society.

Only through thoughtful discussion and strategic decision-making can we hope to navigate the complexities of charging for extras in early years settings. The future of early childhood education hinges on finding ethical solutions that prioritise both financial viability and inclusivity, ensuring that every child receives the best possible start in their educational journey.

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Media enquiries: Gail James: 01622 824372, gail.james@parenta.com

Parenta – Early Years Solutions Provider

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