I recently had the privilege of visiting a school for deaf children and watching a teacher communicate effectively with deaf children who had little or no spoken language. I also visited a pre-school where they used signs to support communication and language throughout their session. Both settings were using signs in a slightly different way, but both serving the same purpose of enhancing and enabling communication. These experiences allowed me to reflect upon how well we communicate with young children and how using sign language can support this communication.
A child signing ‘drink’
In the school for deaf children, both British Sign Language (the language of the deaf community) and English are used to support bilingual language development. Sign language was the main language used, with spoken English supporting this method. They used British Sign Language (BSL) which is often used within the deaf community – it is a language in its own right, and is not spoken. It has grammar, structure, syntax and rules. It relies on signs, body language, facial expression and specific lip patterns. The words signed may be in a different order from spoken English. It is important to remember with British Sign Language that there are regional dialects, and signs can vary in different parts of the country and that other Sign Languages in other counties are a different language.
The development of Makaton
The setting used Makaton signs based on BSL, although some have been modified to ease use. Makaton was developed in the 1970s to help people with learning disabilities to communicate. It is now widely used with a variety of children and adults with and without communication difficulties. It is based on a list of simple everyday words, which uses speech, gesture, facial expression, eye contact, body language, signs, symbols and words to aid communication. Every word has a sign and symbol to represent it. Makaton is always used with spoken language and signs are used in spoken word order. For example, if you wanted to ask a child if they would like a drink – you would sign the word drink, asking the question at the same time, raise your eyebrows in a questioning look, or alternatively you could show a simple picture (a symbol of a drink) and ask the question.
A child signing ‘milk’
When signing with children, parents and carers can choose to use standard signs or make up their own signs and gestures. There are benefits with each method. Creating your own signs can be fun and through following children’s interests they can totally take the lead. If you have made up signs you are probably more likely to remember them as they will be actions/gestures that make sense to you or link to the word in some way.
Signing for continuity and consistency
However, if you are teaching signs in a setting, it might be best to use standard signs from BSL or Makaton, which as I said earlier is based on BSL signs. This is because several adults will be working alongside the children and consistency is very important. Standard forms are understood widely, can encourage continuity between home and setting and can avoid confusion about the meaning of any sign. There are also various books and DVDs on the market which can support you and your children in learning.
Signing with young children can accelerate their use of language as actions precede speech in developmental terms. Many other benefits are found when using signs with young children. For example, signing can decrease the frustration that some children feel when they are not yet able to verbally express their needs and wants. Signing offers children with limited language an accessible way of learning which reinforces understanding as many of the signs ‘act out’ the word being signed, thus helping with comprehension. Using signs with young children clearly benefits the adults working with the children too. If only we could understand what our children with limited language want to say… well, when using sign language we can! Adults can understand and interpret what a child is trying to tell them more easily if the child is signing.
There are some key principles to keep in mind when using sign language with young children:
Always say the word when you sign
Begin with a few key words and repeat them regularly
Be consistent – encourage all carers to use the same signs
Follow the child’s lead – increase your signing vocabulary when they are ready and use signs that they are interested in
Only sign key words using simple sentences – one sign per sentence is often enough
Teach children signs using rhymes, stories and songs as well as through conversation
Maintain eye contact or sign immediately after the child is focussed on the relevant object.
Remember to use facial expression and body language too!
It’s important that you accept and celebrate all attempts at signing from children, valuing their contribution to the conversation. Words that you might want to begin with include words that you can use every day, such as: more, eat, drink, milk, finished/all gone, sleep.
A child signing ‘more’
The best time to start signing with young children is between the ages of 6 months and 3 years because this is when children are most receptive to learning language. However, using signs will benefit all children, whatever their age and I have seen sign language used effectively with nursery and reception aged children as it can enhance communication for all.
Signing and the EYFS
Signing with young children sits comfortably within the principles of the EYFS as it celebrates the unique child and accepts that all children develop at different rates and in different ways. It helps to develop positive relationships between adults and children and also creates an enabling environment for the children. Using signs clearly links with the three Prime Areas (Personal, Social and Emotional Development, Physical Development and Communication and Language) and specific areas of Literacy and Expressive Arts and Design. In using signs, children are responding to experiences, expressing and communicating ideas and learning through songs, rhymes and stories.
Most children love songs with actions, so you could begin using signs by singing something like Old MacDonald, as you can incorporate your children’s favourite animals and learn the signs for them. Using sign language with young children can support all children in their early language development – so why don’t you give it a go!
About the author
Tamsin Grimmer is an experienced early years consultant and trainer and parent who is passionate about young children’s learning and development. She believes that all children deserve practitioners who are inspiring, dynamic, reflective and committed to improving on their current best. Tamsin particularly enjoys planning and delivering training and supporting early years practitioners and teachers to improve outcomes for young children.
As part of a national drive to train 3 million new apprentices by 2020, the way the Government funds apprenticeships in England is changing.
Employers with an annual wage bill of £3 million or more will be required to pay a levy which will come into effect on 6 April 2017. This levy will be paid to HMRC through the Pay as You Earn (PAYE) process and will replace all taxpayer funding of apprenticeships. All employers will receive an offset allowance of £15,000, the equivalent to 0.5% on a payroll of £3 million.
In addition to this, there will be changes to apprenticeship training which will affect all employers, including the non-levy paying ones.
Non-levy paying employers
By 2020, it is anticipated that all employers will use a new online service called the Digital Apprenticeship Service (DAS) to pay for the training and assessment of their apprentices. Until then, non–levy paying employers will be able to continue to negotiate and agree their apprenticeship programme with their chosen training provider.
The Digital Apprenticeship Service will offer employers a means of being able to:
Estimate how much funding to spend on apprenticeships
Choose an apprenticeship course
Select an appropriate training provider
Choose who will assess their apprentice at the end of the course
Post their apprenticeship vacancies online
As part of the funding changes, non-levy paying employers will contribute 10% towards the cost of apprenticeship training, which is paid directly to the training provider. The Government then covers the remaining balance.
All existing apprenticeship frameworks and standards will be allocated a funding band. This will range from a scale of 1-15, and each band will outline the maximum amount that:
the Government is willing to contribute to the course (for non-levy paying employers)
the amount that a levy paying employer will have to contribute towards an individual apprenticeship
The amount within these funding bands ranges from £1,500-£27,000. If an apprenticeship course exceeds the funding band limit, the employer will be expected to cover this additional amount in full themselves.
For employers with fewer than 50 employees, the Government will cover 100% of the costs of training an apprentice who is 16-18 years old, 19-24 year old care leavers or those who have an Education, Health and Care plan. There is additional financial support for employers who take on apprentices who fall into these categories, which is £1000 per apprentice.
Where an apprentice is identified as needing English and Maths qualifications to meet the minimum standard of their apprenticeship, the employer’s chosen training provider will be able to claim £471 from the Government to deliver each qualification.
You can find out more about the apprenticeship reforms and the levy from the Government website.
Need any help or advice regarding the apprenticeship funding rules or training a new apprentice? Speak to our friendly team today.
Last week, the BBC reported that teacher shortages are growing in England as a result of the government missing their recruitment targets for 4 years running. Watchdog has stated that because of this, 28% of secondary school physics lessons are being taught by people with only an A-Level in the subject. This growing gap in the number of qualified teachers is putting the future education of school children at risk.
But what does this mean for the early years sector?
With this argument at the centre of the media right now, it becomes easy for people to forget the similarly devastating position the early years sector have been put in.
In 2014, the government altered the entry requirements for those taking a Level 3 in childcare to include GCSEs at A-C in English and Maths. As a result of this, the number of students progressing to Level 3 has dropped by 70% since 2013/14 and the pool of qualified practitioners is rapidly decreasing, with 43% of nurseries reporting that they’re struggling to find suitable candidates for vacancies.
How will the government’s GCSE requirements combined with plans for an extra 15 hours childcare affect the sector?
The situation we are now faced with is that the government plan on implementing 30-hours free childcare to eligible parents as of 2017 – this means longer hours for nurseries, many of whom already need to make up the gap in funding for the current 15 ‘free’ hours.
With longer hours comes the need for more staff and with qualifications restricting the workers that nurseries can employ; many settings are finding themselves understaffed. But do Early Years Educators need to be highly qualified in maths and English to do their jobs well?
Laura Henry, an award-winning independent childcare consultant, said: “Yes, an educator needs to be able to communicate with parents, assess children and plan their next steps.” Therefore, English and maths qualifications are essential.
However, she thinks the government need to bring back functional skills, as many good practitioners have been lost as a result of these requirements. Functional skills will allow childcare staff to brush up on their skills without having to revisit subjects they sat years before.
Laura reminds us that the most important thing is an ‘educator’s passion’; they need to be able to connect emotionally with the children. Which leaves us with a troubling question, what is more important: GCSEs or the way our children feel when they’re in the nursery?
Right now the government’s biggest concern should be recruitment: the sector needs to be able to attract and retain qualified and quality educators – without this, the long-term stability of the sector is at risk.
Let us know if your nursery is affected by these changes and how you feel they will impact the sector in the long run.
In Early Years settings you often come across unwanted behaviour from children and can see clearly that some children are getting along better with the other children, behaving well and thriving in their surroundings. I am sure you agree that it is usually the same children misbehaving and the same ones who are sitting nicely and eager to learn.
There are many ways to boost traffic to your website but here, we look at five specific points to get you started.
1. Get Social
Social media marketing is a perfect place for sharing your setting information to a huge audience.
If you don’t already have a Facebook account for your nursery/preschool this is a great place to start. Create a Facebook ‘business page’ and look to add this to your local community group. It’s a great, FREE, way to showcase your setting. You can use this platform to advertise availability in your setting and keep parents updated with your latest news and events – just don’t forget to link to your website!
LinkedIn is a great place to showcase your setting to similar industry professionals and share content. It is also a great place to advertise jobs and network. If you have a LinkedIn account, encourage customers and colleagues to give your nursery/pre-school a recommendation, this helps to establish a credible/reliable setting and earn trust.
2. Mix It Up!
Make sure the content on your site is varied to ensure it is interesting to a variety of potential and existing parents and carers. Include videos, images, short news stories with longer sections of text, FAQs, data for fees and funding and key CTA (call to action). Having useful, interesting and important information will keep parents on your site for longer and encourage an enquiry.
3. Capturing Headlines
These are a vital part of your content. Ensure your headings are compelling to your prospective/existing parents: your content is far more likely to be read if the heading appeals.
4. Don’t Forget to Link!
You should be concentrating on not only increasing good quality backlinks to your website (from trusted, well-known related sites) but ALSO linking internally from content within the site. This not only helps with SEO but also results in better navigation/user experience for your existing/prospective parents and carers.
5. Research Your Competition
Look at your competitors’ websites – what do they have on their site that might be missing on yours? Are they on social media? What are they talking about? How are they engaging with parents in your area? Where are they listed? Find out what parents/carers and industry professionals are talking about and include this in your online content.
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