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Music and self-regulation in the early years

Music and self-regulation in the early years

Self-regulation is one of the early learning goals under Personal, Social and Emotional Development. The Early Years Foundation Stage suggests that children will “show an understanding of their own and others’ feelings; work towards goals; wait for what they want; focus their attention while following instructions”. But why is self-regulation so important and what environments lead to early development of self-regulation? And, as always, how can music support this?

To learn effectively, self-regulation, or the ability to direct attention and behaviour, is important (McClelland & Cameron, 2011) because it allows us to:

  • flexibly change attention
  • have a good working (day-to-day) memory
  • control impulses (inhibitory control)

Music addresses these three areas directly:

  • Interesting music often involves unexpected twists – a change in tune, beat or even lyrics. As music uses all senses and abilities, we are happy to follow these twists!
  • Music often involves repetition – like the chorus that is repeated or the same tune to a different verse – and this helps to build memory!
  • Finally, music often has a clear beginning and end, which involves the brain’s reward system through predictability – if the song is started, it can always be completed, whether externally or internally (in your head)!

Self-regulation seems to explain the early achievement gap from poorer and “English as an Additional Language” (EAL) families (Finders et al., 2021). Children from poorer families showed low self-regulation in maths and language, while children from poorer and EAL families showed both low self-regulation and also lower executive function skills.

Self-regulation is important in both cognitive and socio-emotional development. In a study of over 13,000 children (Oloye & Flouri, 2021) aged between 3 and 7 years old, two related areas were investigated: independence and emotional dysregulation. Independent children were found to come from home environments that were disorganised as well as those that were calm and quiet. Dysregulation was found in homes with damp, second-hand smoke and TV noise. Overcrowding, home traffic, presence of open fires and garden access did not affect self-regulation. Musical games are enjoyable, non-competitive ways to bridge this achievement gap. One of the great music education methods, Dalcroze, involves games that cleverly introduce these skills.

Stop-start

A little like musical statues, children walk to the beat while the music plays, and stop when it stops. Unlike musical statues, there is no penalty for getting it wrong, as the purpose is for children to learn by imitating others. This game can be developed into walking with music and clapping (to the beat) when it stops. Or walking when it stops and clapping when it plays. Each of these developments enhances and perfects the ability to self-regulate.

Quick reaction direction

Playing a beat on one instrument e.g. drum, means the children should walk forwards. Quickly changing to another instrument, e.g. bell, means children should walk backwards. Or sideways. Be inventive! Playing in regular timing (groups of 3 beats or 4 beats) allows children to prepare themselves, while keeping alert for changes.

Roll the ball 

Rolling the ball for the length of a line of a song develops the ability to both anticipate as well as prepare or control the speed of the ball. Below I have introduced a little rhyme that is fun to use (Roll Here Roll There), but well-known songs like “Twinkle, Twinkle” are also great for this: children sit opposite each other and must roll the ball slowly enough to only reach each other at the end of the line, e.g. (roll) Twinkle, twinkle, little star (catch), (roll) How I wonder what you are (catch), etc.

Stop on a spot

I’m going to walk, walk, walk, walk

Walk, walk, walk

I’m going to walk, walk walk and

Stop on a spot

Inhibition is about starting and stopping in response to an outside source. This song helps to develop this skill, a little like musical chairs, except that there are always more than enough spots for children to find, jump on, and stop! This song can also be developed in different ways – I’m going to tiptoe. Or jump. Or skip. Or hop. And when the song is well-known, it can be hummed without words, and children respond accordingly – and still stop on a spot.

Old MacDonald (finish the line)

Old MacDonald had a farm (- – – – -)

And on that farm he had a pig (- – – – -)

We actually learn songs in reverse. Try learning a new song by reading/singing it through, and then, sing it through a second time but do not read the last line – there is a good chance that you will mostly remember it. Sing it through a third time and do not read the last two lines – you will find it will soon be memorised! This also works for the lines of songs – sing the beginning of the line and we automatically fill in the end!

Roll here roll there

Roll here, roll there

Roll the ball to Leicester Square

Bounce high, bounce low

Bounce the ball to Shiloh

This game is best introduced with an adult sitting in the middle of the circle of children and demonstrating the speed of the ball to each child. Once they have all had a turn, children can sit opposite each other, taking turns at rolling and catching the ball in time with each line. This game can be developed into bouncing the ball to each other as children’s hand-eye co-ordination develops, or rolled twice as slowly or twice as quickly.

Self-regulation, or the ability to control impulses, is a powerful social skill. Not only does it reduce fights/friction, it allows society to function with the knowledge that behaviour will be rewarded (or punished!), that wages will be paid at the end of a week or month of work, that travel time will get us to where we want to be. And as we know, both nature and nurture impact our development, so we are able to learn new things, regardless of where we come from.

References:

  • Finders, J. K., McClelland, M. M., Geldhof, G. J., Rothwell, D. W., & Hatfield, B. E. (2021). Explaining achievement gaps in kindergarten and third grade: The role of self-regulation and executive function skills. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 54(1st Quarter), 72–85.
  • McClelland, M. M., & Cameron, C. E. (2011). Self-Regulation in Early Childhood: Improving Conceptual Clarity and Developing Ecologically Valid Measures. Child Development Perspectives, 6(2), 136–142.
  • Oloye, H. T., & Flouri, E. (2021). The role of the indoor home environment in children’s self-regulation. Children and Youth Services Review, 121(Feb 2021).
About the author:

Musician, researcher and author, Frances Turnbull, is a self-taught guitarist who has played contemporary and community music from the age of 12. She delivers music sessions to the early years and KS1. Trained in the music education techniques of Kodály (specialist singing), Dalcroze (specialist movement) and Orff (specialist percussion instruments), she has a Bachelor’s degree in Psychology (Open University) and a Master’s degree in Education (University of Cambridge). She runs a local community choir, the Bolton Warblers, and delivers the Sound Sense initiative aiming for “A choir in every care home” within local care and residential homes, supporting health and wellbeing through her community interest company.

She has represented the early years music community at the House of Commons, advocating for recognition for early years music educators, and her table of progressive music skills for under 7s features in her curriculum books.

Frances is the author of “Learning with Music: Games and Activities for the Early Years“ “Learning with Music: Games and Activities for the Early Years“, published by Routledge, August 2017.

www.musicaliti.co.uk

 

Celebrating difference and neurodivergence: part 6

Celebrating difference and neurodivergence: part 6

Being different is brilliant!

This article is the last article in a series of six from Sensory Engagement and Inclusion Specialist, Joanna Grace. The activities described in each article build up to form a toolkit for celebrating difference and neurodivergence within your setting in a way that will benefit both the children and the adults. Joanna runs online training courses focused on strategies for supporting differently-abled children and promoting inclusive practice. Click here for more information.

We have come on such an adventure together! If you joined this article series part-way through, I encourage you to return to the start and explore them all. We have looked at how being open and frank about differences can help everyone achieve to their fullest, and explored how even the tiniest adjustments in the language we use to frame difference can make an enormous impact on the outcomes for a child in the long term, (and for ourselves and our colleagues). 

I have continually challenged you to try to talk about difference in a non-judgemental way. And I know, if you’ve gone on this journey with me, that you will have grown more and more reflective about what constitutes judgement within your language; it can be so much more subtle than labelling things as good or bad, tiny little turns of phrase can imply value and create judgement. 

On one hand, paying attention to the language we use in this way can seem fussy, pointless, petty, even irritating. But those feelings are often initial impressions. Once explored, adapting the language you use actually gets exciting, as you realise the power for good that you have at the tip of your tongue. All the more so in the early years as you are the start of the stories that carry children with them through their lives.

Hopefully, you have also felt the benefit for yourself and your colleagues. If you can create a culture in your setting where differences are accepted, understood and not judged, then you will work in an environment where everyone feels able to be themselves. And I cannot underline enough how beneficial that is to people’s well-being, children and adults.

The opposite is to work in a space where differences are judged. Even the judging of relatively minor differences can create this kind of atmosphere. And in such a setting, you might not see greater differences because people will hide them. Adults and children will suppress aspects of their character, withhold information about themselves. Trying to appear the same as others takes a toll on a person, it costs them energy and self-esteem. It diminishes people and makes your setting a grimmer place to be.

Everyone wants to be somewhere where they are embraced as who they are and how they are right now, a setting that understands and accepts difference is just such a place. Tiny adjustments in our language can trigger big adjustments in attitude. The language we use fundamentally underpins the culture we create in our settings. It is so worth doing and you’ve been doing it! So this article is to throw a party for that, it is a big hurrah. 

Difference is brilliant. We are all different and my goodness what a fantastic thing that is, wouldn’t it be dull if we were all the same? Society needs different brains, people who approach things from different angles, who have different skill sets. The risk can be in education that we offer one way of succeeding, we measure particular aspects of achievement and miss the rest. We all know a ‘one size fits all’ approach fits one person and not the rest. 

The children in your setting have explored their external differences (using the activities in article one) and thought about how they have different thoughts and likes and dislikes to their peers (using the activities in articles two and three). They’ve investigated how we sense and feel things differently to one another (using the activity in article four) and begun to understand that one of the consequences of these differences is that they will each have different skills and abilities (using the activity in article five). How fantastic is that? How amazing is it that such little people can approach such big topics? Imagine a future where they are grown up and in charge and understand how to use their own unique skillsets! You are a part of creating that future. So, for now: celebrate!

Talk to the children about all their adventures and activities so far and celebrate your differences by colouring in rainbow brains. All this time I’ve been challenging you on your language, well here is a new challenge, how blingy can you make those brains? How much glitter and paint, and collage material do you have in your setting? Decorate your brains and share them with me on social media. Let’s create a narrative of pride in our neurodiversity together!

Joanna provides in-person and online training to settings looking to enhance their inclusive practice for more information visit www.thesensoryprojects.co.uk where you can also find resources to help you include children of all abilities. Joanna is active on social media and welcomes connection requests from people curious about inclusive practice.

About the author:

Joanna Grace is an international Sensory Engagement and Inclusion Specialist, trainer, author, TEDx speaker and founder of The Sensory Projects.

Consistently rated as “outstanding” by Ofsted, Joanna has taught in mainstream and special-school settings, connecting with pupils of all ages and abilities. To inform her work, Joanna draws on her own experience from her private and professional life as well as taking in all the information she can from the research archives. Joanna’s private life includes family members with disabilities and neurodivergent conditions and time spent as a registered foster carer for children with profound disabilities.

Joanna has published four practitioner books: “Multiple Multisensory Rooms: Myth Busting the Magic”“Sensory Stories for Children and Teens”“Sensory-Being for Sensory Beings” and “Sharing Sensory Stories and Conversations with People with Dementia”. and two inclusive sensory story children’s books: “Voyage to Arghan” and “Ernest and I”There is new book coming out soon called ‘”The Subtle Spectrum” and her son has recently become the UK’s youngest published author with his book, My Mummy is Autistic.

Joanna is a big fan of social media and is always happy to connect with people via Facebook, Twitter and LinkedIn.

Understanding children

Understanding children

Whether you are a new practitioner, or managing a setting of 200 children, looking after children can be tough. No two children are the same, nor are any two days with them it would seem, and they certainly don’t come with personalised user guides. Despite this, well-intentioned advice will be coming at you from every angle, and it can be difficult to know who to turn to for trusted guidance, as you make decisions for the children in your care.  

While no two children are the same, the fundamental processes of growth and development that guide them are. But how do you begin to understand what children need?  

With the revised EYFS and supplementary guides, to anecdotal advice shared during a coffee break, there is no end of information coming your way. And let us not get started on any one of a hundred sites you may land on when looking to the internet for advice. But with the content of training being as changeable as the children, where can you go to for advice you can trust?

While you may be surrounded by these influences, the truth is that in that moment when you make a decision, or engage with a child, it is your opinions, beliefs and actions that are what really count. And these will be informed by a mix of all these things, and more.  

When you have the knowledge and understanding of how children are developing, how their brain and body is maturing and the complex processes that are occurring, you can begin to trust in your own instincts. You can observe your children’s actions and behaviours, even in those difficult moments, and rely on your own science as you develop techniques that work for you and your setting. Regardless of what you may have read, or those recommendations that do not quite sit comfortably, you can begin to distinguish the techniques and practices you do want to follow.

Children at every age and stage of development are facing a boggling world of depth and texture, sounds and emotions, relationships and expectations.  Sometimes that can feel overwhelming for the best of us, however, in bodies that they are still learning how to manage, and that are changing daily, this can be a stressful ordeal. Especially for children who have not yet learnt to manage stress effectively.  

These skills are being learnt through every experience; within loving environments where stress levels are carefully managed, and appropriate responses are being demonstrated. Before this time, your children will have emotionally charged reactions whenever an experience becomes too stressful for them to manage effectively. This can be something as simple as a loud bang for a baby, raised voices for a toddler, or a disagreement over who will be ‘Mummy’ in the pre-school. Whatever their age, this kind of reaction is a clear indication that the situation is simply more than they can handle.  

We must then look to manage the environment and the situation before things become too much – and it always helps to have a well-considered plan for when emotions do tip beyond the point of no return. 

Children need to feel a sense of love and security. They need to be sheltered from excessively negative experiences within a calm environment, that is at the same time steeped in sensory-rich experiences. Once these things are in place, children begin to develop an emotional stability. They learn to experience their emotions without becoming afraid of them or developing negative behaviours as a reaction to them.  Children also need lots of opportunities to try different experiences, to engage for as long as they are interested and to be rewarded for their efforts. They need environments that are rich in language, surrounded by people who talk to them.  They need to have conversations and really engage, using a wide range of words from the time they are born. 

And lots of opportunities for social interactions – with different ages in different situations.  If you can provide these opportunities, and help your families to do the same, many of the difficulties experienced will resolve themselves.  

There is a limit however! Luckily, children at any age are particularly good at letting us know when they have had enough. When an experience becomes overwhelming, it begins to generate a negative level of stress within the body, causing them to employ any technique they can to get away from it. While you may experience this as the negative behaviours you or your parents are desperately seeking a quick solution to, the easy fix of the naughty step, time outs or raised voices do little to address the underlying issue. And all that happens is behavioural patterns are laid down, ready to be remembered next time.

Negative experiences within any environment are enough to shut down the thinking part of a child’s brain – the cerebral cortex. When this happens, activity in this region of the brain decreases, leaving them functioning from the more emotionally reactive lower brain, where their primitive functions reside – this may sound familiar.  And if you combine this with a situation that is demanding a particular response – such as getting them ready to go outside – or expectations that they are not mature enough to handle – such as sharing a favoured toy – you can see why emotional fallout can be expected. Unfortunately, this experience can be all too familiar when stressful demands are placed on children during their first experiences of, say, the school classroom. Just when they need their cerebral cortex the most.

Children are hard-wired to develop in mind and body through every experience. It is only when something gets in the way of these natural instincts that we begin to experience problems.  

During the early years, children are growing and learning more rapidly than at any other time of their lives. But they are also laying down the expectations and responses towards every future learning experience. To do this effectively, they need adults around them who understand the importance of their early years, as well as their need for emotional stability. And it is only once a child is secure in their environment and their relationships, that their attentions can turn to other things. This is especially important at this time when all our emotions and sense of security have been hugely disrupted. So, enjoy time with your children, manage your expectations and take every opportunity to connect.

Understanding Children is the first session in the new Nurturing Childhoods suite of talks and materials available for your parents to purchase. For your chance of winning a free Nurturing Childhoods module for one of your parents, check out this great new website and complete the questionnaire. Together we can really begin developing the potential of all children in their early years.

About the author:

As Founder of Nurturing Childhoods, Dr Kathryn Peckham is a passionate advocate for children’s access to rich and meaningful experiences throughout their foundational early years. Delivering online courses, training and seminars, she works with families and settings to identify and celebrate the impact of effective childhood experiences as preparation for all of life’s learning. An active campaigner for children, she consults on projects, conducts research for government bodies and contributes to papers launched in parliament. Through her consultancy and research she guides local councils, practitioners, teachers and parents all over the world in enhancing children’s experiences through the experiences they offer. A highly acclaimed author and member of parliamentary groups, Kathryn also teaches a Masters at the Centre for Research in Early Years. 

Get in contact with Kathryn by emailing info@kathrynpeckham.co.uk

Book review: “Using stories to support learning and development in early childhood”

Book review: “Using stories to support learning and development in early childhood”

Helen Lumgair’s new book “Using Stories to Support Learning and Development in Early Childhood is an inspiring and practical kaleidoscope of insight from different story professionals. I am in there singing the praises of sensory stories of course, and Helen kindly included a sensory story of mine for readers to explore themselves. It is based on the marvellous letters written by celebrities and notable persons of the time to the children of Troy when their library burned down, letters, that like this book, expounded the value of exploring narratives in order to educate, enrich and nurture oneself.

As someone who regularly talks about how important sharing stories is, not purely for entertainment but for mental well-being, education and your community, it was wonderful to read the words of so many people singing from the same hymn Sheet as me. I loved Helen’s ‘why’ of “because the stories of others compose the very threads of the universal fabric that connects us, allowing us to glimpse the humanity, the personhood of these so-called others”. Stories as the threads that the universal fabric of connection is made out of, how wonderful is that? And don’t they deserve closer inspection, those threads? Imagine how beautiful a fabric we could weave with greater understanding of our craft.

Through the pages of this book, that understanding is provided by a raft of different authors. Helen herself looks at stories as a whole-body process, exploring their relevance for the development of cognition in early childhood. Kanella Boukouvala tackles metaphor and Helen Garnett looks at play.

Dr Jo Van Herwegen tackles the initially surprising topic of stories and mathematics, surely stories belong in literacy and maths belongs in numeracy? But Dr Herwegen shows how mathematical understanding can be built through sharing stories, listing in her chapter stories that work well for different mathematical topics. 

Dr Valerie Lovegreen explores stories in relation to language and cognition, noting the many linguistic skills that storytelling can develop and also recognising storytelling’s impact on self-confidence and our understanding of the emotions of others. Understanding others is a topic Helen returns to as she looks at the role stories play in countering prejudice and supporting identity in her chapter ‘Diversity and Representation in stories’, and again their benefits to us beyond our literary skills and understanding are examined as Helen explores their role in healing with powerful testimony from people who have found stories to help them as they coped with trauma.

Helen ends the book as powerfully as it begins with the words “At a time when the world feels increasingly fragmented, experiencing what would appear to be an epidemic of loneliness caused by advances in technology and a decline in real connection, it would make sense to focus on facilitating the growth of excellent communicators who contribute to society as listeners, speakers, critical thinkers and evaluators of the information presented to them. What we are aiming for in all of our educating is for children to become creative citizens who prioritise connection with others and act in a compassionate manner as individuals who construct peaceful lives and in turn peaceful societies”. This book will certainly help you strive towards this noble aim.

About the author:

Joanna Grace is an international Sensory Engagement and Inclusion Specialist, trainer, author, TEDx speaker and founder of The Sensory Projects.

Consistently rated as “outstanding” by Ofsted, Joanna has taught in mainstream and special-school settings, connecting with pupils of all ages and abilities. To inform her work, Joanna draws on her own experience from her private and professional life as well as taking in all the information she can from the research archives. Joanna’s private life includes family members with disabilities and neurodivergent conditions and time spent as a registered foster carer for children with profound disabilities.

Joanna has published four practitioner books: “Multiple Multisensory Rooms: Myth Busting the Magic”“Sensory Stories for Children and Teens”“Sensory-Being for Sensory Beings” and “Sharing Sensory Stories and Conversations with People with Dementia”. and two inclusive sensory story children’s books: “Voyage to Arghan” and “Ernest and I”There is new book coming out soon called ‘”The Subtle Spectrum” and her son has recently become the UK’s youngest published author with his book, My Mummy is Autistic.

Joanna is a big fan of social media and is always happy to connect with people via Facebook, Twitter and LinkedIn.

Supporting children with social, emotional and mental health needs

Supporting children with social, emotional and mental health needs

In this article, I explore how we support young children with social, emotional and mental health needs (SEMH). SEMH is a relatively new category; it’s a term we hear more with primary aged and older children, although it is increasingly being recognised in early years. I work for a specialised organisation in Bath called Threeways Brighter Futures; we work with children who have all been identified as needing additional support with their social, emotional and mental health needs. We work with the children once a week throughout their reception year in school, supporting them and their staff team. In this article, I will briefly explore SEMH needs and ways to support children.

We need to view SEMH within a model of difference rather than one of deficit. We are all on a SEMH needs continuum, and we all need to have our SEMH needs met. As practitioners, it is important we are recognising and meeting the SEMH needs of all our children. Sometimes it is apparent when and why a child has high SEMH needs, but other times this is less obvious.

A quick definition of social, emotional and mental health needs is:
  • Children who find it challenging to manage their feeling, emotions and behaviours
  • Children who find everyday change challenging and frightening
  • Children who find it hard to build relationships with adults and other children
  • Children who can find it hard to join in with the activities and routine with the rest of the group or class
There is a range of behaviours that you might regularly see with children who have high SEMH needs; some of these are:
  • Violent outbursts to adults and other key children
  • Distress because the parent/key person is not with them
  • Running off
  • Refusal to join or follow instructions
  • Needing to be in control and controlling things around them
  • Frozen behaviours when they appear to shut down
  • Hiding
  • Withdrawing from adults
  • Self-harm
  • Easily startled by loud noise, sudden movement.
  • Prolonged temper tantrums
  • Sleeping difficulties

When you first glance at these behaviours, you may recognise one or two children in your care who regularly display some or most of these behaviours. If you see some of these behaviours in any of the children you support, I encourage you to start being curious about why and what this is telling you. We know that behaviour is the primary way a child communicates; when a child behaves in any of the ways above, this tells us that something is not right for them. Our job is to explore and understand what this is and then try and help them.

There can be many reasons why a child is displaying higher SEMH needs. Our job is not to diagnose but to recognise and then signpost to other agencies when this is appropriate and offer support to the child and family. Some of the reasons may be due to adverse childhood experiences (ACES); if this is a new term, I encourage you to look at this link to find out more. Or some other reasons may be that a child has recently moved home, is experiencing family illness, a new sibling. However, some children have no apparent reason, but they are still showing high SEMH needs.

What we can do

Helping children to have a rich emotional vocabulary and understanding is vital as an underpinning to all work around SEMH. There are many different resources, books available, or you can make your own. Regularly naming and recognising the wide range of emotions children and adults are experiencing is essential. We all have a range of emotions, and these are neither negative nor positive, we can help children recognise these emotions and name them from a young age. In my work, I use script a lot, using the “I wonder” phrase. If I see a child is struggling, I comment, “I wonder if you are feeling cross, I understand it is hard, but it’s not ok to hurt your friends; let me help you.” This phrase is helpful as it helps to name the emotion; it validates how the child is feeling but has the boundary around the behaviour and is offering support. I encourage everyone to use the same script, all the staff and parents.

In the early years, we talk about children being able to regulate; this is a tricky skill to learn for many children. When a child is dysregulated, they need calm and safe adults around them to help them regulate; they cannot do it independently. We can co-regulate by controlling our breathing, gently coming alongside the child at their level, calmly speaking to the child, not using too many words. The child needs to know they are safe and loved; being dysregulated is a frightening experience, they need to have an adult alongside who can help them.

When we can see a child is finding something challenging, a sensory activity can often support them, helping them either release some of their strong inner feelings or help bring some calmness. We need to know the child well to know what they are needing. Below are some examples I regularly use.

For a child who needs to release some of their stresses and big feelings:
  • Climbing 
  • Pushing something heavy e.g. a wheelbarrow with things in it
  • Pulling on a dog toy (think mini tug of war with an adult)
  • Throwing or kicking a ball
For a child who needs something calming:
  • Playdough (homemade if possible, link to recipe below)
  • Blowing bubbles
  • Crazy soap (a bit like shaving foam but more malleable)
  • Sensory rice (link to recipe below) 
  • Spend time outside, cloud watching or going on a nature walk to notice colours/smells/textures
  • These are very simple ideas that will support any child when their SEMH needs are higher. 

Key points

  • A child is communicating to us through their behaviour; so we need to try and understand what they are telling us
  • Emotions are neither negative nor positive; we can help children learn about their feeling
  • Children need adults who are calm, loving and safe to help them co-regulate

For more information take a look at my new book.

In October, I will be writing about how we can support staff well-being when working with children with SEMH needs.

Links:

Sonia Mainstone-Cotton

Sonia Mainstone-Cotton is a freelance nurture consultant, she has worked in early years for 30 years. Sonia currently works in a specialist team in Bath supporting 3- and 4-year-olds who have social, emotional and mental health needs. Sonia also trains staff across the country: she specialises in supporting the wellbeing of children and staff. Sonia has written 8 books including: 

Supporting children with social, emotional and mental health needs in the early years” published by Routledge,  Supporting young children through change and everyday transitions”, “Promoting Emotional Wellbeing in Early Years Staff” and “Promoting Young Children’s Emotional Health and Wellbeing”. Sonia is also the series advisor for Little Minds Matter series of books promoting social and emotional wellbeing in the early years with Routledge.

Website – http://soniamainstone-cotton.com

Email – sonia.main@icloud.com

Instagram – @mainstonecotton

 

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